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Fluoride toxicity
but excessive exposure to fluoride in drinking-water, or in combination with exposure to fluoride from other sources, can give rise to a number of adverse effects which include teeth decay, osteoporosis and harm to kidney, bones, reproductive organs, nerve and muscle. Fluoride, when in excess, is known to interfere with thyroid gland function causing TSH elevation and lessen T3/T4 hormones in some populations which may be due to its antagonistic properties towards iodine. As an endocrine disruptor, F- induces more toxic outcome in diabetic patients. Chronic F- exposure through drinking water may leads to insulin resistance in humans in addition to its hyperglycemic effect due to increased hepatic glycogenolysis. Fluoride also hinders glycolysis by inhibiting enolase enzyme and repressed insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans cells resulting in elevation of blood glucose level.

High F- exposure is also associated with increased levels of FSH and LH, decreased estrogen and testosterone levels, disturbed androgen to estrogen ratios (A/E) and estrogen receptor to androgen receptor ratios (ER/AR). Decreased circulating testosterone concentrations were also reported in male skeletal fluorosis patients. The most significant consequences of fluoride exposures in male reproduction are: changes in the structure and functional activities of spermatozoa and disruption of spermatogenesis while in an experimental data involving female rats showed that high fluoride concentration lowers the pregnancy rate and the number of implantation. Most interestingly, recent research showed that exposure to high concentration of F- does have deleterious effect on the mental ability of children. A strong association between exposure to fluoride and low IQ was found and it was also noted that children who live in fluorosis prevalent areas have higher chances of developing a low IQ than those who live in normal areas.
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